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Properties out of grunts and you can deep grunts produced by territorial people and you can grunts created by ladies of one’s corkwing wrasse

Properties out of grunts and you can deep grunts produced by territorial people and you can grunts created by ladies of one’s corkwing wrasse
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Dining table dos. For men, level of tunes analysed is given since total number additionally the set of sounds analysed for each private in supports. For men, quantity of nest internet sites equal just how many men registered, for females, it represents the amount of nests at which we observed her or him. Male voice characteristics was indeed averaged into the personal height before calculating this new demonstrated investigation. Indicate ± SD | Average is offered towards the amount of pulses for each voice, duration, heartrate and you may prominent frequency

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Figure step three. Numerous pulse tunes created by brand new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you may relevant spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt from good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt regarding a great territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt of a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram setup: 50 dB dynamic assortment, Hamming screen (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s windows size (male and female grunt), 0.08 s screen duration (men deep grunt)

Shape 3. Several pulse sounds developed by the fresh corkwing wrasse. Wave form (top) and you will corresponding spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out of a territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt of a good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt of a lady corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram settings: fifty dB vibrant range, Hamming screen (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s window size (men and women grunt), 0.08 s screen duration (male deep grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.001, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-heart circulation sounds

The selection of certainly assignable clicks triggered the study from 102 men ticks out of 30 movies regarding 19 somebody and you will 66 female ticks out of 20 video at nests out of 14 guys. Your choice of obviously assignable plops triggered the research out-of 73 men plops off 28 clips of 18 clips and 66 people plops away from 21 films at the nests off fourteen guys. Averaging male tunes for each personal male contributed to an example measurements of n = 18 for ticks, and you will letter = 17 to possess plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than shaadi prijzen in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty eight.cuatro = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).

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